I know Torah scrolls don’t have vowels. And I know there are times when this leaves things a bit ambiguous. And there seem to be standard vowels to apply. Where do those come from? How old are they?
I got into this question looking at Ex 20:7: You shall not raise up the name of the Lord your God for [vanity|falsehood|evil|destruction]. Everyone seems to agree that the word is שָׁוְא and not שׁוֹא, even if they disagree on how to translate it. How can they all be so sure, when the scroll doesn’t distinguish?
I tried googling this, but couldn’t find anything clear.