I am not specifically referring to religious philosophers/theologians, simply philosophers who are Jews; though naming a philosopher who happens to be of Jewish ethnicity but otherwise lacks anything to do with Jews or Judaism, like Marx or Wittgenstein, isn’t very interesting either.
For me, Karl Löwith and Emmanuel Levinas are among the greatest of the last century full stop, of any ethnicity. Löwith was a student of both Heidegger and Edmund Husserl who was another great Jewish philosopher who invented phenomenology and has been an influence on everyone from Sartre and Derrida to self serious analytic philosophers like Hilary Putnam; in many ways Löwith’s work is conceptually similar to Heidegger, but for Heidegger there was no interest in the application of his ideas to specific human instances whereas Löwith is very interested in both history and the unique individual experience, some people call him the Jewish Karl Barth because much of his work after the war and the Shoah is fixated on the deep darkness of the human soul which was made apparent by the war, but I think that comparison sells him short.
Others whose work that I love are Martin Buber, Franz Rosenzweig and Salomon Maimon, and further although I disagree strongly with so much of his ideas I think that Ernst Cassirier deserves more recognition, as one of the last of the German Marburg school/neo-Kantian tradition his own approach to Kant is fascinating and his famous debate with Heidegger raised many interesting questions that still resonate. Furthermore his work The Myth of the State is a really fascinating examination on the intellectual basis of Nazism, as a sort of perversion of the Platonic republic, and as a German Jew who decided to flee a week after the Reichstag fire and died a month before the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany, the book has insight that can only be compared to Walter Benjamin’s essay On the Concept of History.