I myself am not adopted but I heard someone pose this question recently and I’m now also very curious:
If a baby were adopted into a Jewish family (with the adoptive parents being Jewish obv) *AT BIRTH* would they be considered Jewish? (assuming the child is being raised Jewish by the family) Or would they still have to undergo conversion in order to claim Jewish identity?
How would it work with two gay Jewish dads and a baby? If the baby’s biological mother is not Jewish, is the baby still Jewish, as they have no mother in their parental figures for matrilineal passing down of Judaism?
And if the biological mother were Jewish (a surrogate or adoption from the mother at birth or smthn like that) but the baby’s parents are the two dads and the dads were non Jewish, is the baby no longer Jewish even though its biological mother who is not the parent nor relevant or in the picture is?
although ig the overarching question here would be how one defines “parent” within Judaism?