Today, does the term “Jew” refer to all members of the 12 tribes? I know that most tribes are lost, but hypothetically speaking, if they all returned today, would they all be called “Jews”?
I ask these questions because I heard comments from a public person (non-jew from Brazil) who claimed that Judaism doesn’t represent “the religion” of the “Old Testament” (he said it was not Abraham’s religion and etc.), and that Jews are just the people of the tribe of Judah, and that, also for this reason, the modern state of Israel has no connection with ancient Israel (because it was founded by Jews and non-Israelis, he said). I find these arguments weak, obviously (I’m a noahide), but I would like to increase my historical knowledge in this regard, and no one better than the Jewish people themselves to tell me their story.
He also uses the period when there was the Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah as an argument that they are different peoples.
So… When exactly did the term “Jew” and “Judaism” become so broad?
PS: Sorry if I chose the wrong tag, it seemed the most appropriate.